|Головна » Файли » 2013 » 5 (119)|
Рецензент: д.мед.н., проф. М.О. Пересадін
УДК 616.71+612.75-053.5/6:616.2/6-036.12 (477)
Кировоградский университет «Украина» МОН Украины
Kirovohrad University "Ukraine"
Rehabilitation medicine takes increasing development as an independent direction in medicine (in some countries – restorative medicine), it is a system of knowledge and practical activities, aimed at the recovery of functional human working balances, increasing of his health and life qualities lowered as a result of unfavorable effect of factors of the environment and activity or as a result of an illness (at a recovery or remission stage) mainly through non-drug methods. Actuality of this direction is caused by growing incidence with temporary working capacity and disability, and respectively with increase in the contingent of the patients needing the rehabilitation help. The term "rehabilitation" is derived from the Latin reabilitatio: re – repeated, renewable action or opposite action, counteraction; habilis – convenient, adapted, i.e. suitability restoration to something. In a broad sense rehabilitation is a restoration in the rights, in medico-biological value – medical restorative actions.
Rehabilitation is a system of the governmental, socio-economic, psychological, medical, professional, pedagogical activities directed at human’s recuperation, his working capacity and the social status which is based on biological, socio-economic, psychological, mental and ethical and scientific and medical bases. Rehabilitation can be considered, as a process, directed at the polyhedral help to patients and disabled people, for them to achieve greatest possible at a certain disease of physical, mental, professional, social and economic full value. Therefore, rehabilitation includes a number of the main aspects: medical, physical, psychological, professional (labor) and socio-economic.
The main tasks of physical aspect of rehabilitation consist of regeneration acceleration, decrease of degree and volume of functional and structural violations to a minimum, an intensification of compensatory processes and simplification of readaptation to environment at irreversible organic changes. Physical rehabilitation conducts, since a hospital stage, by means of a kinesitherapy (physiotherapy exercises). The psychological aspect of rehabilitation is directed on correction of a mental condition of the patient, his adaptation to the household and social environment, and also formation of the patient’s relations to treatment, the doctor’s recommendations, a implementation of rehabilitation actions. As a result the psychological confidence in achievement of problems of rehabilitation process is formed. The professional aspect of rehabilitation provides an adaptation / readaptation on a workplace. The form and weight of pathological process, character and degree of deficiency of functions, features of the psychological status and a profile of the patient’s personality, his initial educational level is analyzed. The socio-economic aspect of rehabilitation is based on restoration of lost and damaged public connections and relations of the patient or formation of new, elimination of the social restrictions caused by pathology, and also guaranteeing free medical care to the patient, preferential receiving of medicines and sanatorium vouchers, material security at partial or full disability, etc.
Medical rehabilitation in our country has long and glorious traditions. It is necessary to remember that near ⅔ wounded soldiers and officers during the Second World War came back to a system. Medical rehabilitation is the section of recovery medicine directed on recovery treatment and secondary prevention of diseases, increase in functional reserves, compensation of damaged functions and health return. In 1980 WHO committee formulated definition of medical rehabilitation:
Medical rehabilitation is an active process, whose goal is to achieve full recovery of damaged due to disease or injury, functions, or if it is unreal - the optimal implementation of the physical, mental and social potential of the disabled, the most adequate integration of its in society. Medical rehabilitation includes the whole range of the medical actions which are carried out from the moment of a disease or injury to maximal restoration of broken physiological functions of an organism, and in case of impossibility to achieve it, development of compensatory and replaceable functions take place. The purpose of medical rehabilitation is prevention of disability during the treatment of a disease and the help to the patient in achievement of the greatest possible physical, mental, professional, social and economic adequacy in case of disability development, i.e. return to socially useful, active labor activity according to functionality of patients and disabled people. To sum it up, it is possible to draw a conclusion that it is difficult to overestimate a role of medical rehabilitation if to consider that the damage of the state from temporary disability of citizens annually accounts for tens percents from the Gross Domestic Product.
|Переглядів: 453 | Завантажень: 0 ||
|Всього коментарів: 0|