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Нев'ядомська Т.В., Коленова Т.В., Терешкіна О.І., Ульяшов О.М., Черкашина Л.В. Вплив факторів позашкільної діяльності на рівень операти
31.07.2014, 17:27

Резюме
Нев'ядомська Т.В.1, Коленова Т.В.2, Терешкіна О.І.2, Ульяшов О.М.2, Черкашина Л.В.1 Вплив факторів позашкільної діяльності на рівень оперативної пам’яті: психофізіологічне дослідження учнів старшої школи.
З'ясовано, що розумова працездатність школярів, зокрема рівень оперативної пам’яті визначається низкою керованих поведінкових факторів та індивідуальними особливостями організації позашкільної діяльності учнів старших класів. Фізична активність учнів старших класів у обсязі 10 годин на тиждень є найбільш сприятливою для забезпечення стабільно-високого рівня оперативної пам’яті: у разі меншої фізичної активності має місце і зменшення рівня оперативної пам’яті, а значить і ефективного запам’ятовування навчального матеріалу.
Ключові слова: оперативна пам'ять, школярі, психофізіологія.

Резюме
Невядомская Т.В., Коленова Т.В., Терешкина Е.И., Ульяшов А.М., Черкашина Л.В. Влияние факторов внешкольной деятельности на уровень оперативной памяти: психофизиологимческое исследование школьников старшей школы.
Доказано, что умственная работоспособность, в частности – уровень оперативной памяти школьников определяется комплексом управляемых поведенческих факторов индивидуальной организации внешкольной деятельности. Физическая активность учащихся в объёме 10 чаов в неделю является наиболее благоприятным фактором обеспечения стабильно-высокого уровня оперативной памяти: при меньшей физической активности уменьшается и уровень оперативной памяти, а значить и эффективного запоминания учебного материала.
Ключевые слова: оперативная память, школьники, психофизиология.

Summary
Nevyadomska Т.V., Kolenova Т.V., Теreshkina О.І., Ul`yashov O.М., Cherkashyna L.V. Influence factors extracerrical activites on level of operational memory: psychophysiological research high school students.
Mental performance of students, including the level of memory managed by a number of behavioral factors and individual characteristics of the extracurricular activities of high school students. Physical activity high school students in the amount of 10 hours per week is the most favorable for stable high - level  operational memory:  if less physical activity takes place and reducing memory , and thus efficient memorization learning material.
Ключевые слова: operatuonal memory, school students, psychophysiologia.

Рецензент: д.мед.н., проф. М.О. Пересадін

УДК 616. 89 - 036.12 - 06: 616.85

1 Харківська медична академія післядипломної освіти МОЗ України

Харьковская медицинская академия последипломного образования

Kharkov medical academy of Postgraduate Education

2 Комунальний заклад Харківська гімназія №13

Communal establishment is the Kharkоv gymnasium №13

serg_shklyar@ukr.net

The research was conducted within the research department of family medicine, folk and alternative medicine, sanology Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education of Health of Ukraine (Head of Department. - professor S.P. Shklyar) and competitive topics Junior Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (сompleted - Tereshkina O.I.)

Thе  goal   of work consisted in the grant of reasonable practical recommendations  in relation to the increase of level of mental capacity of students of higher forms due to individualization of the sanologic (health-preserving) programs.

Materials and research methods: The study involved 60 students’ grades 9-10. A survey carried out during the school week on two dimensions-level memory daily. To study a number of factors that can affect the level of mental capacity we derived and applied sanologic questionnaire. The questionnaire took into account the factors above all extracurricular activities of high school students and individual indicators valeology behavior of students. Before the study all students were familiar with inspection and testing, providing each with the students to do. In this paper an overview of the features and testing procedures are examples. After reviewing the research participants and the school administration, research, carried out without disturbing the normal conditions of the learning process.

To study the levels operational memory used special psycho-physiological questionnaire - Methods for assessing of operational memory, the essence of which is to determine the amount of arithmetic operations for a specified period of time (30-60 seconds). Research of operational memory conducted over of the week ( two dimensions : after the first and fourth lessons ). According to the methodology for assessing operational memory, the students filled out a daily prepared grid (matrix) response, which is the next and made the database. According to research compiled a summary table (spreadsheet environment «EXEL») for further processing and obtaining aggregate data. The results obtained in the first and second stages of processed statistically (mean values​​, error of mean values​​). To visualize the data, apply graphic form as a histogram, column charts, polygon features analyzed the distribution and construction of analytical dependences [12, 13, 14].

Deontological and legal research problems solved within the existing international conventions and laws of Ukraine [15] principles of bioethics in medical research. Work carried out in accordance with the requirements of the European Convention (Strasbourg, 18/03/1986), the Council Directive of the European Economic  Society (Strasbourg, 21.11.1986), the Statute of the Ukrainian Association on Bioethics and the rules of GLP (1992), as required standards CCI S8R (2002) and the Model Regulations on Ethics Health of Ukraine № 281 dated 01.11.2008. Results and their discussion. Analysis of operational memory of pupils (Fig. 1) evidence of its reduction during the school day and school week. So, if after the 1st lesson earlier in the week (Monday and Tuesday) memory was the highest by the end of the training week state memory characterized by lower levels.  In addition, beginning on Wednesday, the level of operational  memory at the end of the school day is found lower than at the beginning. On the one hand, can be explained by the formation of fatigue of students, and the other - the adaptation to training loads on weekends.

It follows marks also, that the relative increase of level of main memory at the beginning of educational days in Environment-Friday can ground changes in the curriculum of employments in behalf on realization of employments after a greater requirement to main memory of schoolchildren. Id est, if there is possibility of planning of such objects, as for example algebra, then most successful would be realization of employments on 3th and fourth lessons in Monday-Tuesday, or - 1th or 2th lessons on Wednesday - Friday. These periods are most effective in relation to the use of main memory of schoolchildren and, accordingly, more rapid perception of new educational material, or implementation of calculation operations.

Research of the state of main memory depending on physical activity of schoolchildren is executed taking into account existent аdvice (The World Health Organisation) in relation to the estimation of levels of physical activity in out-of-school time.

Application of questionnaire method allowed to identify that only (20,0±5,2) % schoolchildren are had satisfactory physical activity(10 and more than hours for a week) (guys - 26,1±6,7%, girls - 16,2±6,1%). Subzero physical activity (of 5-9 hours for a week is had 60,0±6,3% schoolchildren (girls - 62,2±8,0%, guys - 56,5±8,3%). Very subzero (less than 5 hours for a week) - 20,0±5,2% schoolchildren (girls - 21,6±6,8%, guys - 17,4±7,9%). In undertaken a study it is educed that schoolchildren with the satisfactory level of physical activity (of over 10 hours for a week) have higher indexes of main memory (of lines.2). Among this group of schoolchildren the level of main memory hesitated after the days of educational week in limits from 24,6 to 22,9 points, while among schoolchildren with extremely unsatisfactory physical activity - indexes of main memory were considerably below (from 19,4 to 17,5 points hesitated in limits).

Herewith, the indicators of operational memory of school children with a satisfactory level of physical activity were almost stable, and among other groups of school children - operational memory decreased during  the training week. Thus, satisfactory physical activity (more than 10 hours per week)  provided a stable higher operational memory of school children.

The method of questioning revealed that 16,7±4,8% of pupils have experience of smoking and "sometimes smoke" (boys - 30,0±8,2%, girls - 10,8±5,1%). Given the anonymity of the research the concerning smoking of cigarettes by school children, analyzed impact of this factor on the state of operational memory during the school week. It was found (picture 3) that students who have experience smoking (or, in the polling, "sometimes smoke") during the school week has been a decline of operational memory (from 24.3 to 21.4 points). School children, who do not smoke, dynamics operational memory within a week was less expressive and, in fact, remained within the range of 24.4 to 23.3 points.

The method of questioning revealed that 63,2 ± 6,4% of students use tonic drinks (which include : strong tea, coffee, tonic ), Women of pupils 51,4 ​​± 8,2%, among boys - 85, 0 ± 8,0%. In the study of memory usage periodic tonic drinks also proved a significant factor driving its state (Fig. 4). It was found that students who do not use tonic beverages during school week with a high and stable performance of memory, while among students who drink tonic beverages , relative and temporary (Tuesday -Wednesday) increasing operational memory  (and during the week , these levels decreased from 22.8 to 21.7 points. The duration of day and night sleep is known, is considered one of the most important factors of mental health status and the process of memorization in particular. Among students surveyed 50,0±6,5% time - by- time with naps , the girls - 54,1 ± 8,2%, among boys - 35,0±9,7%. In the study of nocturnal sleep duration revealed that the average resting schoolchildren 7,8 ± 0,1 h, slightly less girly - 7,7 ± 0,2 hours than boys - 7,9 ± 0,1 hours. However, given the need for valeology night's sleep (for children of this age night's sleep should be at least 9 hours) , we performed an analysis of operational memory  depending on the duration of night sleep (Fig. 5 ). As a result - it was found that students who have a night's sleep 9 hours or more are characterized by high levels of memory (within 24,2-23.5 points, depending on the day school week ). Students with insufficient nocturnal sleep ( of such majority ) are characterized by lower performance  operational memory  and a decrease at the end of the training week.

Disjoint important such factors as the duration of the students to the computer ( the terminal) . On the one hand , this activity requires the formation of the necessary skills , including the development of memory, and the other - the work on the computer selects time detection of physical activity in direct communication with others, sleep , and more. A separate issue is the formation of the present relationship ( "computer ") among surveyed by us , 31,7 ± 6,0% of students daily work (or play ) on the computer for more than 90 min, more - are girls (43,2±8 1% ) , while among those computer guys stayers - 13,0±7,0%. Among boys twice as many of those who work with the terminal 45-90 minutes a day: girl - 32,4±7,7%, boys - 73,9±9,2%.

Regulatory fixed period of working with video terminals are 23,4±7,1% of girls and only 13.0±7.0% of boys (on the whole - 20,0±5,2% of students ). It should also be noted that in addition to excess computer use in daily extracurricular life, students used cell phones , girls spend every day talking 2,3±0,3 h guys - half - 1,1±0,2 hours.

Examine the impact on pupils Information technology orientation’s activity status of memory ( Fig. 6) performed in three subgroups of students , broken down in terms of duration of daily work with your computer. We found that students who work with computers every day is no more  2 hours , performance RAM - the most stable throughout the day school week ( range between 25,3-22,8 points).

At school, working with a computer for 2-3 hours daily, even found an increase in operational memory   on Wednesday and Thursday. However, on Friday and Monday is a relative decrease of memory that can be attributed to fatigue of the visual analyzer and sensor systems students. That is, work with the computer more than 2 hours daily is able to provide a temporary improvement of memory, followed by a decrease in its level due to overwork. Quite revealing is the reduction of memory in schoolchildren. The daily and immensely (over 3 hours) are or are using a computer (see Fig. 6 ). It is known that prolonged stress sensor systems capable of forming a body of (sensory systems), a condition in which inhibition processes dominate over the activation process of the nervous system, and manifested in a less efficient perception of new ( operational ) information.

We conducted a study of individual activities also allow students to decide regarding out-of- time filling certain types of students (Fig. 7 ).

As shown in Figure 8, the largest share of out-of- time students - girls are as follows ( in rank order) : homework , Mobile communications, computer work, reading fiction. Note that homework takes time in almost two times less than working with a computer and a mobile communication and reading fiction takes three times less time than mobile communication . A somewhat different distribution of after-school time activities for boys : work on the computer, doing homework , playing sports . mobile communication.

Conclusions.

1. Mental performance of  students, including the level of memory managed by a number of behavioral factors and individual characteristics of the extracurricular activities of high school students .

2. Physical activity high school students in the amount of 10 hours per week is the most favorable for stable high - level  operational memory:  if less physical activity takes place and reducing memory , and thus efficient memorization learning material.

3. Аscertained that students who have a night's sleep 9 hours or more characterized by higher levels of operational memory   and students with insufficient nocturnal sleep characterized, respectively, less than that of operational memory   and an additional reduction of the end of the training week.

4. Even volatile Smoking cigarettes reduces the level of operational memory pupils at 10-12% and the use of tonic drinks (coffee, tea, tonic) - it does not provide the required level and directly contributes to the reduction of mental capacity.

5.Revealed that students working with video terminals (PC and mobile) daily maximum of 2 hours , performance operational memory for day school week - stable , whereas In case of longer duration Information technology orientation’s activity  - Lowering of operational memory last two days training a week.

6. Increase of operational memory  - a problem whose solution requires some effort directly to the student, his family and teaching staff as a significant location changes in individual motivation (student), correction and control of student extracurricular activities (family, parents), and involvement in extracurricular activities intraschool physical and valeological education (raising the level of individual memory - an indicator of the effectiveness of physical education and valeological).

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