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Національний технічний університет України «Київський політехнічний інститут» (Київ)
Национальный технический университет Украины "Киевский политехнический институт" (Киев)
National Technical University of Ukraine "Kyiv Polytechnic Institute" (Kyiv)
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In 1921 as a result of experiments of German scientists S. Prausnitz and H. Kustner it been shown correlation between allergy and unidentified serum factor. These factor was named as “regain” by A.F. Coca in 1925. Only in the 1966-67 American researchers K. Ishizaka, T. Ishizaka, M. Hornbrook  and in Sweden investigators Н. Bennich and C. Johansson  identified a new class of antibodies, which was defined by the World Health Organization as immunoglobulin E (IgE). IgE is a class of antibody which is present only in mammals, and is a monomeric glycoprotein with 190 kDa molecular mass. IgE Fc-fragment has twice the molecular weight compared to the Fc-fragment of IgG (100 kDa), due to the additional 100 amino acid residues (contains additional four CH-domain). Immunoglobulin E is synthesized mainly in the lymphoid tissue of the skin, respiratory tract, intestines and lymph nodes that drain it. The main function of IgE is associated with defense against helminths and protozoa parasites. IgE plays an important role in hypersensitivity type I, which is manifested by various allergic diseases such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, atopic dermatitis, anaphylaxis, etc.
Given the clinical significance of IgE is an important study of the mechanisms of synthesis of this class of IgE and IgE-dependent immune responses, which play an important role in the development of allergy and defense against parasites.
The aim of the work was to analyze the current scientific data on the molecular mechanisms of synthesis of IgE and IgE-dependent features of immune responses. Work carried out in accordance with scientific research plan of the National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute” and is a fragment of the search topic “Comparative characterization and optimization methods epitop mapping antigens of protein nature”.
In a review article were analyzed the current scientific data on the molecular mechanisms of synthesis of IgE and IgE-dependent features of immune responses. We summarized the current scientific evidence about: features of the structure and regulation of biosynthesis of IgE (including structural features of IgE, IgE switching mechanisms of biosynthesis and its regulation) and current ideas on the molecular mechanisms of IgE-dependent reactions (in particular, the features of the participation of IgE in the protection of the microorganism against parasites and biological functions of high and low affinity IgE receptor, antigen-dependent effects of IgE and IgE-mediated allergic reactions).
IgE is found only in mammals, so is quite late immunoglobulin isotyp from an evolutionary point of view. Normally, the immunoglobulin class E contained in the body in very small quantities (10 to 400 ng/L). Accumulates mainly in the tissues of the mucous membranes, skin, communicates through Fcε-receptor with the surface of mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils. Induction of IgE synthesis occurs after the direct contact with the membrane forms IgE.
Regulation of synthesis occurs via the interleukin 4 (IL-4). IgE causes the surface expression of both specific receptors: high-affinity FcεRI and low affinity FcεRII/CD23. FcεRI is a multimeric immune receptor, which plays a crucial role in the development of IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Low affinity receptor FcεRII/CD23 plays an important role in regulating responses IgE: it reacts with IgE, CD11c, CD18, CD21/CR2, CD47, CD51, CD61. IgE also plays an important role in the immune response against helminth invasions.
The point of initiation of synthesis of IgE-antibody is antigen recognition by membrane-associated form of immunoglobulin E, which is expressed on the surface of B cells. However, for the further proliferation of B cells and their differentiation into IgE-secretory plasma cells required two additional signals: CD40 and CD40L interaction and signal molecules as IL-4 or IL-13, which direct recombination into the genome of Cε, resulting ε-chain transcribed. A large number of T-helper (Th) type II (Th2), can induce both signals. Thus, the antigen was subjected to proteolytic cleavage by peptide fragments further associated with molecules of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) and transported to the surface of B cells. Specific T cells that carry MHC II with antigenic determinants recognize and bind antigen. This results in transient expression CD40L on T cells. CD40L/CD40 interaction activates B7-1/B7-2 (CD80/CD86) receptors on B cells and stimulates B cells to proliferate. The binding of B7 to CD28 on T cells activates T cells, which begin to produce IL-4 and other cytokines and thus cause the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. Mast cells, basophils and eosinophils, effector cells of IgE are produce Th2 type cytokines, including IL-4. In addition, CD40L mast cells and basophils can induce synthesis of IgE. However, IgE synthesis involves the synthesis of Th2-type cytokines. IgE response against this antigen are regulated predominantly Th2-cells. In contrast, interferon-γ inhibits the immune response to Th2-type and synthesis of IgE.
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